Additional Resources: Climate Change and Salmonids

There are a number of reports, papers, tools, and datasets that may be useful in your efforts for salmonid conservation under a changing climate



Salmonids and Climate


Vulnerability Tools


EPA Vulnerability Framework

A non-spatial ranked index method for species

US EPA. 2009. A Framework for Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to Climate Change (External Review Draft). EPA/600/R-09/011. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.


NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index

A non-spatial ranked index method for species

Young, B., E. Byers, K. Gravuer, K. Hall, G. Hammerson, and A. Redder. 2011. Guidelines for using the NatureServe climate change vulnerability index Release 2.1. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.


SAVS (A System forAssessing Vulnerability of Species)

A non-spatial ranked index method for species

Bagne, K. E., M. M. Friggens, and D. M. Finch. 2011. A System for Assessing Vulnerability of Species (SAVS) to Climate Change. Page 28. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-257. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO.


SPECIES: A SpatialEvaluation of Climate Impact on the Envelope of Species

Complementary tool to CCVA

Pearson, R. G., T. P. Dawson, P. M. Berry, and P. A. Harrison. 2002. SPECIES: A Spatial Evaluation of Climate Impact on the Envelope of Species. Ecological Modelling 154:289–300.


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Vulnerability in the Literature

Brooks, N. 2003. Vulnerability, risk and adaptation: a conceptual framework. Working Paper No. 38. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. Available from

Foden, W. B. et al. 2013. Identifying the World’s Most Climate Change Vulnerable Species: A Systematic Trait-Based Assessment of all Birds, Amphibians and Corals. PLoS ONE 8:e65427.

Füssel, H.-M., and R. Klein. 2006. Climate change vulnerability assessments: an evolution of conceptual thinking. Climatic Change 75:301–329.

Füssel, H.-M. 2007. Vulnerability: A generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research. Global Environmental Change 17:155–167.

Gardali, T., N. E. Seavy, R. T. DiGaudio, and L. A. Comrack. 2012. A Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment of California’s At-Risk Birds. PLoS ONE 7:e29507.

Glick, P., B. A. Stein, and N. A. Edelson. 2011. Scanning the conservation horizon: A guide to climate change vulnerability assessment. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C. Available from (accessed November 14, 2012).

Halpern, B. S., K. A. Selkoe, F. Micheli, and C. V. Kappel. 2007. Evaluating and ranking the vulnerability of global marine ecosystems to anthropogenic threats. Conservation Biology 21:1301–1315.

Hinkel, J. 2011. “Indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity”: Towards a clarification of the science–policy interface. Global Environmental Change 21:198–208.

Johnson, K. A. 2014. Climate change vulnerability assessment for natural resources management: toolbox of methods with case studies. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, VA. Available from  (accessed June 19, 2014).

Landguth, E. L., C. C. Muhlfeld, R. S. Waples, L. Jones, W. H. Lowe, D. Whited, J. Lucotch, H. Neville, and G. Luikart. 2014. Combining demographic and genetic factors to assess population vulnerability in stream species. Ecological Applications. Available from (accessed February 14, 2014).

McDaniels, T., S. Wilmot, M. Healey, and S. Hinch. 2010. Vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to climate change: A life  cycle perspective using expert judgments. Journal of Environmental Management 91:2771–2780.

Midgley, G. F., L. Hannah, D. Millar, M. C. Rutherford, and L. W. Powrie. 2002. Assessing the vulnerability of species richness to anthropogenic climate change in a biodiversity hotspot. Global Ecology and Biogeography 11:445–451.

Rowland, E., J. Davison, and L. Graumlich. 2011. Approaches to evaluating climate change impacts on species: a guide to initiating the adaptation planning process. Environmental Management 47:322–337.

Saxon, E., B. Baker, W. Hargrove, F. Hoffman, and C. Zganjar. 2005. Mapping environments at risk under different global climate change scenarios. Ecology Letters 8:53–60.

Shoo, L. P. et al. 2013. Making decisions to conserve species under climate change. Climatic Change. Available from (accessed February 13, 2013).

Skelly, D. K., L. N. Joseph, H. P. Possingham, L. K. Freidenburg, T. J. Farrugia, M. T. Kinnison, and A. P. Hendry. 2007. Evolutionary responses to climate change. Conserv. Biol. 21:1353–1355.

Soares, M. B., A. S. Gagnon, and R. M. Doherty. 2012. Conceptual elements of climate change vulnerability assessments: a review. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 4:6–35.

Thomas, C. D. et al. 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427:145–148.

Turner, B. L. et al. 2003. A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100:8074–8079.

Wade, A. A., T. J. Beechie, E. Fleishman, N. J. Mantua, H. Wu, J. S. Kimball, D. M. Stoms, and J. A. Stanford. 2013. Steelhead vulnerability to climate change in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Applied Ecology 50:1093–1104.

Walther, G. R., E. Post, P. Convey, A. Menzel, C. Parmesan, T. J. C. Beebee, J. M. Fromentin, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and F. Bairlein. 2002. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416:389–395.

Williams, S. E., L. P. Shoo, J. L. Isaac, A. A. Hoffmann, and G. Langham. 2008. Towards an integrated framework for assessing the vulnerability of species to climate change. PLoS Biology 6:e325.

Wilson, K., R. L. Pressey, A. Newton, M. Burgman, H. Possingham, and C. Weston. 2005. Measuring and incorporating vulnerability into conservation planning. Environmental Management 35:527–543.


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Climate Tools and Data

Climate data are available on RAP for XXXX Extent at XXXX resolution based on the AR4 climate projections, but other resources exist for differing extents and scales.


Climate Wizard

Extent:  Contiguous United States

Resolution: xxxx

Projections: xxxx

Variables: air temperature and precipitation


National Climate Change Viewer

Extent:  Contiguous United States

Resolution: 800 m grid

Projections: AR5 Climate Report

Variables: air temperature, precipitation and water balance


NorWeST Stream TemperatureDataset

Extent:  Pacific Northwest (in process)

Resolution: NHD Plus Streams

Projections: AR4 Climate Report

Variables: stream temperature


NorWeST Stream TemperatureDataset

Extent:  Pacific Northwest (in process)

Resolution: NHD Plus Streams

Projections: AR4 Climate Report

Variables: stream flow variables



Extent:  Contiguous United States

Resolution: xxxx

Projections: Historical only

Variables: air temperature and precipitation


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Climate Information in the Literature

CIG (Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington). 2008. Climate Change Scenarios in the Pacific Northwest. Available from (accessed January 27, 2014).

CSES (Center for Science in the Earth System), CIG (Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington), and King County, Washington. 2007. Preparing for climate change: a guidebook for local, regional, and state governments. Page 186. University of Washington, King County Washington, ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability. Available from (accessed June 19, 2014).

Deser, C., A. Phillips, V. Bourdette, and H. Teng. 2012. Uncertainty in climate change projections: the role of internal variability. Climate Dynamics 38:527–546.

Donley, E. E., R. J. Naiman, and M. D. Marineau. 2012. Strategic planning for instream flow restoration: a case study of potential climate change impacts in the central Columbia River basin. Global Change Biology 18:3071–3086.

Elsner, M. M., L. Cuo, N. Voisin, J. S. Deems, A. F. Hamlet, J. A. Vano, K. E. B. Mickelson, S. Y. Lee, and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2010. Implications of 21st century climate change for the hydrology of Washington State. Climatic Change 102:225–260.

Hamlet, A. F., and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2007. Effects of climate change on hydrology and water resources in the Columbia River Basin. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 35:1597–1623.

Hawkins, E., and R. Sutton. 2009. The Potential to Narrow Uncertainty in Regional Climate Predictions. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90:1095–1107.

Hidalgo, H. G. et al. 2009. Detection and attribution of streamflow timing changes to climate change in the Western United States. Journal of Climate 22:3838–3855.

IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change). 2007a. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups 1, II, and II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland.

IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change). 2007b. Summary for policymakers. in S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, editors. Climate Change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kates, R. W., J. H. Ausubel, and M. Berberian. 1985. Climate Impact Assessment. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Knutti, R., and J. Sedláček. 2013. Robustness and uncertainties in the new CMIP5 climate model projections. Nature Climate Change 3:369–373.

Littell, J. S., M. M. Elsner, G. S. Mauger, A. F. Lutz, and E. P. Salathe. 2010. Regional Climate and Hydrologic Change in the Northern US Rockies and Pacific Northwest: internally consistent projections of future climate for resource management. Available from (accessed January 24, 2014).

Miles, E. L., A. K. Snover, A. F. Hamlet, B. Callahan, and D. Fluharty. 2000. Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment: The Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on the Water Resources of The Columbia River Basin. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 36:399–420.

Moss, R. H. et al. 2010. The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment. Nature 463:747–756.

Palmer, M. A., D. P. Lettenmaier, N. L. Poff, S. L. Postel, B. Richter, and R. Warner. 2009. Climate Change and River Ecosystems: Protection and Adaptation Options. Environmental Management 44:1053–1068.

Regonda, S. K., B. Rajagopalan, M. Clark, and J. Pitlick. 2005. Seasonal cycle shifts in hydroclimatology over the Western United States. Journal of Climate 18:372–384.

Snover, A. K., N. J. Mantua, J. S. Littell, M. A. Alexander, M. M. Mcclure, and J. Nye. 2013. Choosing and Using Climate-Change Scenarios for Ecological-Impact Assessments and Conservation Decisions. Conservation Biology 27:1147–1157.

Wu, H., J. S. Kimball, M. Elsner, N. J. Mantua, R. F. Adler, and J. Stanford. 2012. Projected climate change impacts on the hydrology and temperature of Pacific Northwest rivers. Water Resources Research 48:Online Early View DOI: 10.1029/2012WR012082.


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Salmonids and Climate in the Literature

Anderson, J. J., and W. N. Beer. 2009. Oceanic, riverine, and genetic influences on spring chinook salmon migration timing. Ecological Applications 19:1989–2003.

Arthaud, D., C. Greene, K. Guilbault, and J. Morrow. 2010. Contrasting life-cycle impacts of stream flow on two Chinook salmon populations. Hydrobiologia 655:171–188.

Araújo, M. B., R. J. Whittaker, R. J. Ladle, and M. Erhard. 2005. Reducing uncertainty in projections of extinction risk from climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14:529–538.

Battin, J., M. W. Wiley, M. H. Ruckelshaus, R. N. Palmer, E. Korb, K. K. Bartz, and H. Imaki. 2007. Projected impacts of climate change on salmon habitat restoration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:6720–6725.

Beechie, T. et al. 2013. Restoring Salmon Habitat for a Changing Climate. River Research and Applications 29:939–960.

Beechie, T., E. Buhle, M. Ruckelshaus, A. Fullerton, and L. Holsinger. 2006. Hydrologic regime and the conservation of salmon life history diversity. Biological Conservation 130:560–572.

Beer, W. N., and J. J. Anderson. 2010. Sensitivity of juvenile salmonid growth to future climate trends. River Research and Applications 27:663–669.

Beer, W. N., and J. J. Anderson. 2013. Sensitivity of salmonid freshwater life history in Western US streams to future climate conditions. Global Change Biology:n/a–n/a.

Bisson, P. A., J. B. Dunham, and G. H. Reeves. 2009. Freshwater ecosystems and resilience of Pacific salmon: Habitat management based on natural variability. Ecology and Society 14:Online URL:

Bryant, M. D. 2009. Global climate change and potential effects on Pacific salmonids in freshwater ecosystems of southeast Alaska. Climatic Change 95:169–193.

Chan, K., J. Li, D. Patterson, M. Hague, and A. Farrell. 2008. Modeling of thermal and hydraulic barriers that marginalize Pacific salmon spawning migrations. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Molecular & Integrative Physiology 150:S169–S170.

Chittenden, C. M., R. J. Beamish, and R. S. McKinley. 2009. A critical review of Pacific salmon marine research relating to climate. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 66:2195.

Connor, W. P., C. E. Piston, and A. P. Garcia. 2003. Temperature during incubation as one factor affecting the distribution of Snake River Fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132:1236–1243.

Crossin, G. T. et al. 2008. Exposure to high temperature influences the behavior, physiology, and survival of sockeye salmon during spawning migration. Can. J. Zool. 86:127–140.

Crozier, L. G., A. P. Hendry, P. W. Lawson, T. P. Quinn, N. J. Mantua, J. Battin, R. G. Shaw, and R. B. Huey. 2008a. Potential responses to climate change in organisms with complex life histories: evolution and plasticity in Pacific salmon. Evolutionary Applications 1:252–270.

Crozier, L. G., R. W. Zabel, and A. F. Hamlett. 2008b. Predicting differential effects of climate change at the population level with life-cycle models of spring Chinook salmon. Global Change Biology 14:236–249.

Crozier, L., and R. W. Zabel. 2006. Climate impacts at multiple scales: evidence for differential population responses in juvenile Chinook salmon. Journal of Animal Ecology 75:1100–1109.

Eaton, J. G., and R. M. Scheller. 1996. Effects of climate warming on fish thermal habitat in streams of the United States. Limnology and Oceanography 41:1109–1115.

Eby, L. A., O. Helmy, L. M. Holsinger, and M. K. Young. 2014. Evidence of climate-induced range contractions in bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain watershed, U.S.A. PLoS ONE 9:e98812.

Eliason, E. J., T. D. Clark, M. J. Hague, L. M. Hanson, Z. S. Gallagher, K. M. Jeffries, M. K. Gale, D. A. Patterson, S. G. Hinch, and A. P. Farrell. 2011. Differences in thermal tolerance among sockeye salmon populations. Science 332:109–112.

Elliott, J. M. 1991. Tolerance and resistance to thermal stress in juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Freshwater Biology 25:61–70.

Farrell, A. A. P., S. A. . Hinch, S. A. J. Cooke, D. A. A. Patterson, G. A. T. Crossin, M. Lapointe, and M. A. T. Mathes. 2008. Pacific salmon in hot water: applying aerobic scope models and biotelemetry to predict the success of spawning migrations. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 81:697–709.

Goniea, T. M., M. L. Keefer, T. C. Bjornn, C. A. Peery, D. H. Bennett, and L. C. Stuehrenberg. 2006. Behavioral thermoregulation and slowed migration by adult fall Chinook salmon in response to high Columbia River water temperatures. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:408–419.

Goode, J. R., J. M. Buffington, D. Tonina, D. J. Isaak, R. F. Thurow, S. Wenger, D. Nagel, C. Luce, D. Tetzlaff, and C. Soulsby. 2013. Potential effects of climate change on streambed scour and risks to salmonid survival in snow-dominated mountain basins. Hydrological Processes 27:750–765.

Greene, C. M., D. Jensen, G. R. Pess, and E. M. Beamer. 2005. Effects of environmental conditions during stream, estuary, and ocean residency on Chinook salmon return rates in the Skagit River, WA. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:1562–1581.

Groot, C., and L. Margolis. 1991. Pacific salmon life histories. UBC press, Vancouver, B.C.

Hannah, L., G. Midgley, and D. Millar. 2002. Climate change-integrated conservation strategies. Global Ecology and Biogeography 11:485–495.

Healey, M., and M. Bradford. 2011. The cumulative impacts of climate change on Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and implications for management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 68:718–737.

Healey, M. C. 2009. Resilient salmon, resilient fisheries for British Columbia, Canada. Ecology and Society 14:2.

Heller, N. E., and E. S. Zavaleta. 2009. Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: a review of 22 years of recommendations. Biological Conservation 142:14–32.

Heming, T. A. 1982. Effects of temperature on utilization of yolk by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) eggs and alevins. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39:184–190.

Hicks, B. J., J. D. Hall, P. A. Bisson, and J. R. Sedell. 1991. Responses of salmonids to habitat changes. Influences of forest and rangeland management on salmonid fishes and their habitats. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 19.

Hodgson, J. A., C. D. Thomas, B. A. Wintle, and A. Moilanen. 2009. Climate change, connectivity and conservation decision making: back to basics. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:964–969.

Hodgson, S., and T. P. Quinn. 2002. The timing of adult sockeye salmon migration into fresh water: adaptations by populations to prevailing thermal regimes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:542–555.

Hoekstra, J. M., K. K. Bartz, M. H. Ruckelshaus, J. M. Moslemi, and T. K. Harms. 2007. Quantitative threat analysis for management of an imperiled species: Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tsawytscha). Ecological Applications 17:2061–2073.

Holtby, L. B. 1988. Effects of logging on stream temperatures in Carnation Creek British Columbia, and associated impacts on the Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45:502–515.

Isaak, D. J., C. H. Luce, B. E. Rieman, D. E. Nagel, E. E. Peterson, D. L. Horan, S. Parkes, and G. L. Chandler. 2010. Effects of climate change and wildfire on stream temperatures and salmonid thermal habitat in a mountain river network. Ecological Applications 20:1350–1371.

Isaak, D., S. Wollrab, D. Horan, and G. Chandler. 2012. Climate change effects on stream and river temperatures across the northwest U.S. from 1980–2009 and implications for salmonid fishes. Climatic Change 113:499–524.

Isaak, D. J., and B. E. Rieman. 2013. Stream isotherm shifts from climate change and implications for distributions of ectothermic organisms. Global Change Biology 19:742–751.

Jones, L. A., C. C. Muhlfeld, L. A. Marshall, B. L. McGlynn, and J. L. Kershner. 2014. Estimating thermal regimes of bull trout and assessing the potential effects of climate warming on critical habitats. River Research and Applications 30:204–216.

Jorgensen, J. C., J. M. Honea, M. M. McClure, T. D. Cooney, K. Engie, and D. M. Holzer. 2009. Linking landscape-level change to habitat quality: an evaluation of restoration actions on the freshwater habitat of spring-run Chinook salmon. Freshwater Biology 54:1560–1575.

Keefer, M. L., C. A. Peery, and C. C. Caudill. 2008a. Migration timing of Columbia River spring Chinook salmon: effects of temperature, river discharge, and ocean environment. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137:1120–1133.

Keefer, M. L., C. A. Peery, and M. J. Heinrich. 2008b. Temperature-mediated en route migration mortality and travel rates of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 17:136–145.

Lackey, R. T. 2003. Pacific northwest salmon: Forecasting their status in 2100. Reviews in Fisheries Science 11:35–88.

Lawler, J. J. et al. 2008. Resource management in a changing and uncertain climate. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8:35–43.

Lee, C. G., A. P. Farrell, A. Lotto, S. G. Hinch, and M. C. Healey. 2003a. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and coho (O-kisutch) salmon following critical speed swimming. Journal of Experimental Biology 206:3253–3260.

Lee, C. G., A. P. Farrell, A. Lotto, M. J. MacNutt, S. G. Hinch, and M. C. Healey. 2003b. The effect of temperature on swimming performance and oxygen consumption in adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and coho (O-kisutch) salmon stocks. Journal of Experimental Biology 206:3239–3251.

Macdonald, J. S. et al. 2000. The influence of extreme water temperatures on migrating Fraser River sockeye salmon during the 1998 spawning season. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2326.

MacNutt, M. J., S. G. Hinch, C. G. Lee, J. R. Phibbs, A. G. Lotto, M. C. Healey, and A. P. Farrell. 2006. Temperature effects on swimming performance, energetics, and aerobic capacities of mature adult pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) compared with those of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 84:88–97.

Mantua, N., I. Tohver, and A. Hamlet. 2010. Climate change impacts on streamflow extremes and summertime stream temperature and their possible consequences for freshwater salmon habitat in Washington State. Climatic Change 102:187–223.

Marine, K. R., and J. J. Cech Jr. 2004. Effects of high water temperature on growth, smoltification, and predator avoidance in juvenile Sacramento River Chinook salmon. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24:198–210.

McClure, M. M. et al. 2008. Evolutionary consequences of habitat loss for Pacific anadromous salmonids. Evolutionary Applications 1:300–318.

McCullough, D., S. Spalding, D. Sturdevant, and M. Hicks. 2001. Issue Paper 5: Summary of technical literature examining the physiological effects of temperature on salmonids. EPA-910-D-01-005, prepared as part of the US EPA Region 10 Temperature Water Quality Criteria Guidance Development Project. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Region 10; Portland, OR.

McDaniels, T., S. Wilmot, M. Healey, and S. Hinch. 2010. Vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to climate change: A life  cycle perspective using expert judgments. Journal of Environmental Management 91:2771–2780.

Montgomery, D. R., J. M. Buffington, N. P. Peterson, D. Schuett-Hames, and T. P. Quinn. 1996. Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface mobility and embryo survival. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53:1061–1070.

Mote, P. W., E. A. Parson, A. F. Hamlet, W. S. Keeton, D. Lettenmaier, N. Mantua, E. L. Miles, D. W. Peterson, D. L. Peterson, and R. Slaughter. 2003. Preparing for climatic change: the water, salmon, and forests of the Pacific Northwest. Climatic Change 61:45–88.

O’Neal, K. 2002. Effects of global warming on trout and salmon in U.S. streams. Page 46. Defenders of Wildlife, Washington, D.C. Available from

Palmer, M. A., D. P. Lettenmaier, N. L. Poff, S. L. Postel, B. Richter, and R. Warner. 2009. Climate Change and River Ecosystems: Protection and Adaptation Options. Environmental Management 44:1053–1068.

Pearson, R. G., and T. P. Dawson. 2003. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: are bioclimate envelope models useful? Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 12:361–371.

Petersen, J. H., and J. F. Kitchell. 2001. Climate regimes and water temperature changes in the Columbia River: bioenergetic implications for predators of juvenile salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:1831–1841.

Peterson, D. P., S. J. Wenger, B. E. Rieman, and D. J. Isaak. 2013. Linking climate change and fish conservation efforts using spatially explicit decision support tools. Fisheries 38:112–127.

Pörtner, H. O., and A. P. Farrell. 2008. Physiology and climate change. Science 322:690–692.

Quinn, T. P. 2005. The behavior and ecology of pacific salmon and trout. University of Washington Press.

Quinn, T. P., and D. J. Adams. 1996. Environmental changes affecting the migratory timing of American shad and sockeye salmon. Ecology 77:1151–1162.

Quinn, T. P., J. A. Peterson, V. F. Gallucci, W. K. Hershberger, and E. L. Brannon. 2002. Artificial selection and environmental change: countervailing factors affecting the timing of spawning by Coho and Chinook salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131:591–598.

Rand, P. S., S. G. Hinch, J. Morrison, M. G. G. Foreman, M. J. MacNutt, J. S. Macdonald, M. C. Healey, A. P. Farrell, and D. A. Higgs. 2006. Effects of river discharge, temperature, and future climates on energetics and mortality of adult migrating Fraser River Sockeye salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:655–667.

Reed, T. E., D. E. Schindler, M. J. Hague, D. A. Patterson, E. Meir, R. S. Waples, and S. G. Hinch. 2011a. Time to Evolve? Potential Evolutionary Responses of Fraser River Sockeye Salmon to Climate Change and Effects on Persistence. PLoS ONE 6:e20380.

Reed, T. E., D. E. Schindler, and R. S. Waples. 2011b. Interacting effects of phenotypic plasticity and evolution on population persistence in a changing climate. Conservation Biology 25:56–63.

Rieman, B. E., D. Isaak, S. Adams, D. Horan, D. Nagel, C. Luce, and D. Myers. 2007. Anticipated climate warming effects on bull trout habitats and populations across the interior Columbia River basin. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136:1552–1565.

Richter, A., and S. A. Kolmes. 2005. Maximum temperature limits for Chinook, Coho, and Chum Salmon and Steelhead Trout in the Pacific Northwest. Reviews in Fisheries Science 13:23–49.

Ruesch, A. S., C. E. Torgersen, J. J. Lawler, J. D. Olden, E. E. Peterson, C. J. Volk, and D. J. Lawrence. 2012. Projected Climate-Induced Habitat Loss for Salmonids in the John Day  River Network, Oregon, USA. Conservation Biology 26:873–882.

Salinger, D. H., and J. J. Anderson. 2006. Effects of Water Temperature and Flow on Adult Salmon Migration Swim Speed and Delay. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:188–199.

Sauter, S. T., J. McMillan, and J. Dunham. 2001. Issue Paper 1. Salmonid behavior and water temperature. Prepared as part of EPA region 10 Temperature Water Quality Criteria Guidance Development Project. EPA-910-D-01-001. U.S. EPA.

Schindler, D. E., X. Augerot, E. Fleishman, N. J. Mantua, B. Riddell, M. Ruckelshaus, J. Seeb, and M. Webster. 2008. Climate change, ecosystem impacts, and management for Pacific salmon. Fisheries 33:502–506.

Sullivan, K., D. J. Martin, R. D. Carwell, J. E. Toll, and S. Duke. 2000. An analysis of the effects of temperature on salmonids of the Pacific Northwest with implications for selecting temperature criteria. Sustainable Ecosystems Institute.

Taylor, S. G. 2008. Climate warming causes phenological shift in Pink Salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, behavior at Auke Creek, Alaska. Global Change Biology 14:229–235.

Torgersen, C. E., D. M. Price, H. W. Li, and B. A. McIntosh. 1999. Multiscale thermal refugia and stream habitat associations of Chinook salmon in northeastern Oregon. Ecological Applications 9:301–319.

Walsh, C. L., and C. G. Kilsby. 2007. Implications of climate change on flow regime affecting Atlantic salmon. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 11:1127–1143.

Wenger, S. J., D. J. Isaak, C. H. Luce, H. M. Neville, K. D. Fausch, J. B. Dunham, D. C. Dauwalter, M. K. Young, M. M. Elsner, and B. E. Rieman. 2011. Flow regime, temperature, and biotic interactions drive differential declines of trout species under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108:14175–14180.

Williams, J. E., A. L. Haak, H. M. Neville, and W. T. Colyer. 2009. Potential Consequences of Climate Change to Persistence of Cutthroat Trout Populations. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 29:533–548.

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